Research Presented at the Africa Program

Issues in this Series

A Challenge: The Arab Spring in North Africa and its Ramification on the Continent

Ahmed Haggag
After the demise of the Soviet Bloc and the democratic transitions of Eastern Europe which witnessed very dramatic changes in internal and external polices of those countries, many thought that this would be the model for the Arab world to emulate. However, it was generally thought that it would be a decade before the Arab world was ready for such a transition. Accelerating the pace of democratization it was believed, would pave the way for extremist religious parties to assume power, leading to a radical shift in the foreign policy orientation of key Arab states.

Peace, Security & Democracy

Foundation for World Wide Cooperation
The recent events in Northern Africa and in Côte D’Ivoire remind us that peace remains fragile in Africa. They also show the existence, in the long-term, of an intimate relationship between political stability and democracy. Indeed, the lack of the latter often jeopardizes the former. Despite great improvements in the stability and economic growth of many African states, some of its regions still experience significant domestic conflicts.

Africa's Infrastructure Regional Challenges and Opportunities

Tanya Konidaris and Clare Allenson
A binding constraint on African development is the continent’s crippling infrastructure deficit. Infrastructure is a crucial stimulant for growth and development. Investment, production and trade cannot occur without adequate water and power sources, road, rail and air transport and communication systems. Well-functioning and effectively maintained infrastructure is essential to Africa’s economic performance.

Making Peace After Genocide

Howard Wolpe
It is a small country, no larger than the state of Maryland, with a population numbering just over 8 million. The dimensions of the human tragedy that has played itself out in Burundi since the country’s independence in 1960, however, are anything but diminutive: an estimated 400,000 killed, some 800,000 forced to flee the country, and many tens of thousands internally displaced. The human catastrophe that is Burundi is dwarfed in Africa only by its neighbor, Rwanda, which in 1994 saw close to 1 million of its population systematically murdered. This report examines the efforts that regional states and other international actors undertook to end the Burundian cycle of violence.

Certification: The Path to Conflict-Free Minerals from Congo

Sasha Lezhnev and David Sullivan
The conflict minerals movement is gaining traction. The movement is a pragmatic effort to address one of the principal drivers of atrocities and conflict throughout Congo’s tortured history: the scramble for control of Congo's vast mineral resources. In eastern Congo today, these mineral resources are financing multiple armed groups, many of whom use mass rape as a deliberate strategy to intimidate and control local populations. Armed groups and military units earn hundreds of millions of dollars per year by trading four main minerals: the ores that produce tin, tantalum, tungsten, and gold. This money enables the militias to self-finance their campaign of brutal violence against civilians, with some of the worst abuses occurring in mining areas.

Hitting the Target, Missing the Point: Youth Policies and Programmes in Kenya

Margaret Wamuyu Muthee
Kenya has adopted major governance reforms aimed at improving its socioeconomic and political environment. The reforms include a new constitution (2010), Vision 2030 and other sectoral policies focusing on specific issues and categories of the population such as youth, children, women and persons with disabilities, among others. Youth have increasingly received attention due to their large numbers, gravity of the challenges confronting them and their role in political and electoral violence as well as crime.

Pilfering the Peace: The Nexus Between Corruption and Peacebuilding

Amy Margolies
How might the best practices of peacebuilding be applied to anti-corruption? Based on interviews with trainers and staff of the Burundi Leadership Training Programme (BLTP) of the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars, this article explores possible answers to that question in light of a successful peacebuilding effort. The author also flags ideas for future projects and research at the nexus of the two fields. 

The Role of ECOWAS in Achieving the Economic Integration of West Africa

Dr. Mohamed Ibn Chambas
Special presentation by Dr. Mohamed Ibn Chambas, President of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Commission at the Wilson Center.

Opportunities and Constraints for the Disarmament and Repatriation of Foreign Armed Groups in the DRC

Hans Romkema
On September 13, Hans Romkema of Conflict and Transition Consultancies (CTC) presented at the Wilson Center, his report on opportunities and constraints for the disarmament and repatriation (D&R) of foreign armed groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Angola's Financial Sector: The Growth Opportunity

Emidio Pinheiro
As part of the Angola Day event on May 9, 2007, Emidio Pinheiro presented a powerpoint presentation discussing the macroeconomic outlook of Angola, the domestic financial sector, and the challenges of the future.

Oil, Broad-Based Growth, and Equity: Angola Country Economic Memorandum

Francisco G. Carneiro
This powerpoint presentation was part of the Angola Day event at the Woodrow Wilson Center on May 9, 2007. Francisco Carneiro of the World Bank presented his findings and recommendations about the oil industry in Angola.

Angola's Health Situation

Evelize Frestas
This powerpoint presentation discusses the current health situation in Angola, including the challenges posed by malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and other diseases in the framework of the Angolan health infrastructure. In Portuguese.

Stategizing for Peace: The Critical Role of Women in Sudan

Jacqueline O’Neill and Fahima Hashim
In November 2006, The Initiative for Inclusive Security convened a diverse group of 50 women leaders from the governments of National Unity and Southern Sudan as well as civil society for a consultation on increasing women's participation in the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. This was presented at the Wilson Center on December 6, 2006.

Building Peace in Darfur: The Vital Role of Women Leaders

Evelyn Thornton
On December 6, 2006 at the Wilson Center the Initiative for Inclusive Security presented a list of objectives for including women in the security process in Darfur.

Solving the Crisis in Darfur

Pekka Haavisto
A powerpoint presentation about the Darfur conflict, goals, problems, and challenges faced by the international community given at the Woodrow Wilson Center Director's Forum on April 5, 2006.

Fighting to Survive

Heather Baldwin
A powerpoint presentation delivered on August 12th, 2005, describing the cases of seven former female child soldiers.

The Road to Peace in Liberia: Citizen Views of Transitional Justice

Transitional Justice Working Group Initiative
This powerpoint presentation was delivered at an Africa Program conference on November 10, 2004. The research is the product of the first nation-wide survey and 12 focus groups on the topic of how to address war crimes, conducted in August and September, 2004. The survey was conducted by the Transitional Justice Working Group, a consortium of Liberian NGOs, with the support of U.S. and Liberian organizations.

Peace in Sudan: Women Making the Difference

Policy Recommendations by Sudanese Women
These policy recommendations were drafted by a delegation of 16 Sudanese women peacebuilders during seven days of meetings in New York and Washington, DC, sponsored by Women Waging Peace. The Wilson Center joined Women Waging Peace in sponsoring events in Washington. Full coverage of this conference is available from the Women Waging Peace site.

The Challenges of Post-conflict Economic Recovery and Reconstruction in the Sudan

Dr. Lual A. Deng
This paper was presented at a meeting at the Wilson Center on September 24, 2004. Dr. Deng, a senior economic advisor to the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement, the principal rebel movement in Southern Sudan outlines the prospects for economic growth in the war-torn nation.

Report on the Causes and Consequences of Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in South Kivu, DRC

Ndeye Sow, Annie Bukaraba, Vénantie Bisimwa, and Jeanne d’Arc Chakupewa
This research was conducted by International Alert, along with partner organizations in the Congo. The preliminary findings were presented at the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars on March 12, 2004 by Ms. Bisimwa and Ms. Chakupewa, leaders of two women's organizations in the Congo.

Women, Muslim Laws and Human Rights in Nigeria

Ayesha Imam
This keynote address was presented by distinguished feminist scholar, Ayesha Imam, coordinator of the Nigerian women's rights organization BAOBOB, at a forum hosted by the Woodrow Wilson International Center's Africa Program and Middle East Project on Women, Islam and Human Rights in Africa, on September 17th, 2003.

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